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FUNCTIONALISM

A site is influenced by many complex and diverse factors. There are different architectural contexts and each determines the type of building design. The scale between spane and architecture, especially the most standard occurring sizes, is determined primarily by the structural usage, and is always perceived in relation to human scale and the adjacent spaces. People are affected by the relative perception of spatial scale effects. Architects and planners have developed some systems over the course of the architectural history, all which refer to human scale. One of the most recent is Le Corbusier’s “Modulor”.

Hence, an increasing pressure on interior designers to provide functional facilities that maximize the usages of interior space and serve more than one limited programmatic requirement. For example, in conference centers, classroom buildings, and banquet facilities the ability to change room size is essential. However, if there is only single function of the space, the consequences will be using other places to set with another functions. For a limited area, multifunction as the major design concept is the better solution. The space planner should know the conventionally available building products and techniques to open and close spaces, including their approximate installed cost, their approximate sound transmission qualities, and the relative ease with which they can be opened and closed.

Singapore is a small island city-state of about 700 sq km with a cosmopolitan population of 4.6 million people. With a small land size and practically no natural resources, Singapore faces a challenging of transformation occurring. It is important to focus on designing with multifunction to improving of living quality. This help to make Singapore to become an economically powerful city that is as well as one of the most livable cities in Asia.

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Functionalism is explained in many areas: architecture, philosophy of mind, psychology, etc. Functionalists argue society is a system made up of inter-related parts like a body is made up of organs that work together. Like organs in the body each part, sub-system or institution work with each other to keep society functioning well. If change happens in one part of society, the change will happen in other parts as well. Some part of society may start to work less well, like a failing organ and lead to dysfunction. The meaning of functionalism in architecture is the principle of architects should design the buildings or the projects that are based on the purposes of work.

According to mathematics, space is the objects and events happening in a boundless, three-dimensional extent and it have relative position and direction. Between the link of the evolution of architectural drawing and concepts of space in environmental design overtures can be traced back via a continuous, chain of evidence to the higher cultures of the Near and Far East and early Egyptian dynasties when the ideas of a ground plan and spatial concepts were organized against simple linear grids. The earliest known ‘architectural’ design drawing is a landscape layout plan for a tamarisk grove which fronted the Egyptian temple at El-Dier el-Bahari near Memphis. It is drawn in ink on sandstone and dated circa 2100 BC. The design plans were not used in the design of western European architecture until the rediscovery of Euclidean geometry in 1100 AD.

David Émile Durkhiem (1858 – 1917) was the founder of modern sociology and also the father of functionalism. Durkhiem proposed that lacks the strong centralized institution


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